Although the administrative subdivisions varied, they generally involved a division of labour between East and West. The Arabs, now firmly in control of Syria and the Levantsent frequent raiding parties deep into Asia Minor, and in — laid siege to Constantinople itself.
Inthe Corpus was updated and, along with the enactments promulgated by Justinian afterformed the system of law used for most of the rest of the Byzantine era. The empire held on to a small slice of the Iberian Peninsula coast until the reign of Heraclius.
The closure of the Platonic Academy in was a notable turning point. They captured the Balkan fortress of Sirmium inwhile the Slavs began to make inroads across the Danube. InByzantine forces sent to disperse these new settlements were defeated. Generally speaking, the eastern Mediterranean provinces were more urbanised than the western, having previously been united under the Macedonian Empire and Hellenised by the influence of Greek culture.
Inemperor Diocletian created a new administrative system the tetrarchyto guarantee security in all endangered regions of his Empire.
Despite continuing resistance from a few Gothic garrisons and two subsequent invasions by the Franks and Alemannithe war for the Italian peninsula was at an end. At the same time the Slavs laid pressure and settled in the Balkans.
Res Publica Romana; Greek: Nevertheless, Hellenistic philosophy began to be gradually supplanted by or amalgamated into newer Christian philosophy.
The city also lost the free grain shipments inafter Egypt fell first to the Persians and then to the Arabs, and public wheat distribution ceased.
To fend off the HunsTheodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila. Eventually, the Persians were obliged to withdraw all armed forces and return Sassanid-ruled Egyptthe Levant and whatever imperial territories of Mesopotamia and Armenia were in Roman hands at the time of an earlier peace treaty in c.
With his final overthrow insupported once more by the urban aristocracy, the Heraclian dynasty came to an end.
A revolt broke out under an officer named Phocas, who marched the troops back to Constantinople; Maurice and his family were murdered while trying to escape.
Half of the Italian peninsula and some part af Spain were lost, but the borders were pushed eastward where Byzantines received some land from the Persians. The Byzantine Empire in — Because of the Byzantine—Sasanian War of — both Byzantines and Persians exhausted themselves and made them vulnerable for the expansion of the Caliphate.The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued.
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